Impact Factor


Setelah melakukan penelitian, satu aktivitas yang dinanti-nanti adalah menulis laporan penelitian. Laporan penelitian ini dapat berupa publikasi ilmiah atau biasa disebut scientific publication atau scientific paper.

Dalam men-submit paper, banyak hal yang dipertimbangkan, diantaranya adalah ke journal mana paper akan kita submit.

Jika kita melakukan penelitian tentang tumbuh kembang anak, kita submit ke jurnal yang sesuai, misalnya jurnal Child Development. Jangan kita submit paper tersebut ke jurnal Chemical Engineering.

Setelah kita mengerucutkan pilihan jurnal berdasarkan kategori, selanjutnya yang biasa dipertimbangkan adalah impact factor (IF). Setiap jurnal memiliki IF, kecuali jurnal yang baru berdiri kurang dari 2 tahun.

Apakah IF itu?

Berikut sebuah kutipan tentang IF yang dijabarkan oleh M. Malathi dan Devinder Mohan Thappa dalam publikasi mereka yang berjudul The intricacies of impact factor and mid-term review of editorship:

Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), proposed in 1955 a bibliographic system for scientific literature – “Citation Indexes for Science” – which was initially developed for cross-reference literature searches and identification of individual scientists working on particular topics. In the early 1960s, along with Irving H. Sher, Eugene Garfield created the journal IF to help select journals for the Science Citation Index (SCI). The term “impact factor” was first used in 1961, later same used in a publication in the SCI in 1963. A journal’s IF is based on two elements: the numerator, which is the number of citations in the current year to any items published in a journal in the previous 2 years, and the denominator, which is the number of substantive articles (source items) published in the same 2 years. The IF is calculated by the ISI, which is a part of the Thomson company, and is basically a by-product of computerized databases of the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) and the SCI. The IF of a journal A in a particular year Y is computed using the formula:

IF A = all citations in Y to articles in A during (Y − 1) + (Y − 2)/all citable articles in A during (Y − 1) + (Y − 2)

Penjelasan lebih sederhana diberikan oleh Wikipedia sebagai berikut:

In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years. For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows:

A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008.
B = the total number of “citable items” published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (“Citable items” are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.)

2008 impact factor = A/B.

Jadi, semakin sedikit paper yang di-publish pada sebuah jurnal (B) diiringi dengan semakin banyak paper tersebut di-cite (A), maka IF-nya akan semakin besar.

Tapi tidak selalu IF jadi pertimbangan. Ada jurnal-jurnal yang IF-nya tidak terlalu besar namun merupakan jurnal bergengsi atau jurnal-jurnal yang sifatnya society. Memang, semakin tinggi IF juga sangat bergengsi dan tidak mudah untuk publish pada jurnal tersebut (pada dasarnya mem-publish paper pada jurnal manapun memang tidak mudah). ^^v

Menurut data yang aku dapatkan, jurnal dengan IF paling tinggi tahun 2012 adalah CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians dengan IF 101.78. Adapun Nature ber-IF 36.28. Tidak menjadi masalah jika memiliki paper di dalam jurnal ber-IF nol koma sekian, satu koma sekian, atau dua koma sekian as long as kita ikhlas untuk berbagi manfaat untuk sesama. 🙂

Wallahua’lam.

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